Man-made wonders: Nilgiri Mountain Railway

Nilgiri Mountain Rail also known as the ‘Ooty Toy train’ is one of the most exciting ways to explore the beautiful Nilgiri Hills. It is one of the steepest mountain railways in Asia and is steeper than its Himalayan counterparts (e.g. Shimla, Darjeeling). The terrain of Nilgiris is very demanding and it took the British 45 years to complete the Niligiri Mountain Railways. This may not sound like much until you are told that Darjeeling Hill Railway, which was the first Hill railway in India and built before Niligiri, was built in under 3 years.

Unlike the other three famous mountain railways of India (Shimla, Darjeeling and Matheran), which use narrow gauge, Nilgiri Mountain Rail runs on standard metre gauge tracks with adaptation for the mountains. Nilgiri Mountain Rail has rightly been declared as a ‘World heritage site’ by UNESCO in 2005.

A Brief History of the Nilgiri Mountain Railway

In the 18th century when Udhagamandalam or Ootacamund was a favoured hill station for the British posted in Madras, Mysore & Travancore presidencies, access to the town was primarily through horse back or on ‘dollies’ (palanquins) carried by workers. The British commissioned the Swiss Inventor Riggenback to build a railway line. Work commenced in 1899. The initial route ran upto Coonoor, but was later extended to Fern Hill and further to Ooty in 1900’s. The locomotives used here have impressive strength and life span. The youngest locomotive of this train is about 50 years old and the oldest is about 80 years and still going strong.

The Train’s Unique Engineering

A unique thing about the Ooty toy train is that it ascends from an altitude of 1069 Feet to 7228 feet, i,e an impressive 6159 feet within just 45 kilometres, making it the steepest rail route in Asia. The excellent engineering capabilities that made this possible is very interesting and unique called Alternate Biting system or ABT, which is also known as rack and pinion system. It mimics the way a person climbs a ladder.

Rack rail between regular rails

Between the metre gauge rails is a pair to two closed placed rails that look like teeth. The teeth on the two rails are not matched, but out of step with each other. The third rail pair is called a rack. On the underside of the train is a wheel with teeth. The teeth on this wheel behave like human feet. They place themselves on the teeth on the rack and use them like the steps of a ladder, thus propelling the train upward. This teeth-bearing wheel is called a pinion. Regular metre gauge rails run for 4 km from the origin station, Mettuppalayam. The rack rail starts at Kallar railway station, where the train’s pinions grab onto it to start a steep ascent.

The train is powered by a steam locomotive between Mettuppalayam and Coonoor. In this section, on the way up, the steam locomotive is at the rear of the train to push it from behind. On the way down, the locomotive is on the front of the train, but is attached with its hood facing the train. Which means that the downhill-bound train is still being pushed uphill! This is because, the train hurtles downward purely due to gravity and the engine regulates the train’s speed, so as to prevent any collision or derailing.

A Nilgiri Mountain Railway train at a platform at Coonoor.

These days, the section between Coonoor and Ooty is powered by diesel locomotives. These locomotives were running on the Southern Railway’s metre gauge route between Chennai and Madurai. But with that route converted to broad gauge, the locomotives were shipped to Nilgiri Mountain Rail. Pinions were added to the underside of the diesel locomotives to use the rack rails.

The Rail Route of the Ooty Toy Train

Important railway stations on the route are:

  1. Mettuppalayam, where the train starts.
  2. Coonoor
  3. Wellington
  4. Lovedale
  5. Ooty

There are other stations such as Kallar, where the rack rail begins, Hill Grove, where the train stops for the steam locomotive to refill water to produce steam, Aravankadu and Ketti.

Nilgiri train taking a halt outside a tunnel

The railway line between Mettupalayam and Ooty is 46 Km long and takes 5 hours. Starting from the foothills at the Mettupalayam, on the banks of Bhavani river, the train passes through the plains for 4 kilometres. In the next 12 Km stretch it quickly climbs an impressive 4363 feet, and passes through nine tunnels. The entire stretch between Kallar and Ooty contains 16 tunnels with different curvatures and lengths, all in excellent condition.  The stretch also has 250 bridges large and small. It is a delight to cruise through this picturesque route in a cute little toy train, which travels at a maximum permissible speed of 13 kmph over the rack rail section and at a maximum of 30 kmph on the section with no rack.

The steam locomotive of the Nilgiri Mountain train hisses out plenty of steam at Hill Grove railway station as it prepares to leave.

Although, there are no scheduled down times for monsoon, unlike the Matheran Hill Railway in Maharashtra, the Nilgiri mountains receive very heavy rainfall from both the south west and north east monsoons. The train service may be temporarily suspended due to landslide or related hazards.

A heritage semaphore signal on the Nilgiri Mountain route. An arm parallel to the ground is the equivalent of a red ‘stop’ signal and the arm drooping down towards the ground is the equivalent of the green ‘go’ signal. At night, the arms are nearly invisible. The red and blue film glow in the dark. If these radiant films are vertically lined up, then the arm must be parallel to the ground, but if they are appear diagonal, then the arm must be down.

Traveller Tips

  1. Grab the left side of the coach on the way up and right side on the way down to get more views of the valley. On the other side you will mostly see mountain walls adjacent to the train.
  2. The best views can be seen from the early morning and early evening trains with several photo opportunities.
  3. Mettupalayam – Coonor section doesn’t just has the best views. This part of the journey is powered by the Swiss-made X Class steam locomotive, which is one of the oldest steam locomotives still running.
  4. Only one of the coaches is available for reservation in advance, e.g. through a website like IRCTC. The tickets for the other coaches must be bought at the station where you board. The tickets are sold on a first-come-first-serve basis. To get the tickets at the station, please be available at least 30 minutes to an hour before the departure of the train.
  5. Ooty station is officially called Udhagamandalam, after the city’s Tamil name. The British habitually failed to learn the correct pronunciation of Indian places. They pronounced and spelled the name as Ootacamund. It was shortened to Ooty and the name stuck. You will also see the shortened Tamil name Udhagai on shop boards and state transport buses.

Full Video

Here is a full video of our ride in the Nilgiri Mountain Rail toy train from Mettuppalayam to Coonoor.


Railways are a wonderful way to explore India, but mountain railways like the one in Nilgiri are especially spectacular. Along with enabling the tribes of India to access the facilities in the cities of the plains, they are an engineering marvel, a work of beauty and a tribute to the wonder that India is.


Man-made Wonders: Unakoti, Tripura

The many facets of Shiva

Shiva is a deity with many legends and folk tales. From the form of a dancer, Lord Nataraja, symbolizing the cosmic dance, to the Linga, representing the atomic structure and also the structure most suited for storage of energy with little wastage. However the unique form of Shiva in Unakoti, is that of a tribal lord. Such a representation is seen nowhere else. For a moment, Amish Tripathi’s description of Shiva as a competent tribal warrior in his Shiva trilogy books suddenly rings true. The Bas relief of Shiva, his family and other deities are carved on the natural contours of the rocks in the area.

Location of Unakoti

Unakoti is part of a national biodiversity park of the same name on a range of hills called the Unakoti hills. To the west and the north of the hills is Bangladesh. Unakoti is between the state capital of Agartala and the city of Dharmanagar on the Agartala – Dharmanagar – Karimganj highway.

Important Sculptures

The main Bas relief of Unakotishwera Kala Bhairav ie Shiva is about 30 ft and may be considered one of the biggest in the country. There are several statues and bas relief carved in the adjacent landscapes and some are yet to be discovered. Statues of Goddess Durga and Ganga next to Lord Siva and the Ganesh sculptures are the most exquistive of the reliefs found in there.

The three Ganesh statues are accompanied by a small and beautiful waterfall which drains itself into a pool before the statues. One extremely unique feature is that Ganesha is shown as a lean God without his signature pot- belly.

Ganesh statue at Unakoti

A small collection of various statues found in the vicinity are displayed near the ashram found on one corner of hills. The Ashram also continues puja for the main Shiva statue. During monsoons the beauty of the place is enhanced by the greenery and the waterfalls that fall on the bas reliefs.

Legend and Folklore of Unakoti

Dating of the sculptures vary widely based on sources. Official sources date it to 9 – 10th century AD during the Pala rule. There are several legends to the origin of Unakoti .

Unakoti means one less than a crore inBengali. It is said that a local sculptor called Kallu Kumar wanted to accompany Shiva and Parvati to their heavenly abode of Mt.Kailash. Shiva wary of the request assigned Kumar the job of creating one crore sculptures by day break to grant his wish, and Kumar fell short of his target by one. Another legend says the sculptor received a divine message in his dream to create the reliefs and went on to create one crore sculptures of Gods and Goddess. at the end of this task, he created the last sculptor on himself rather than of the Gods and hence is considered as one less than a crore.

A bas relief showing Lord Ram and his weapon of choice.

Another folklore tale mentions that Shiva along with one crore deities (including himself was travelling to Kasi and decided to rest overnight in the hills, He had bid the deities to be awake and ready by day break. However at day break, Siva found himself to be the only one awake and cursed all other deities to turn into stones.

How to Reach and where to stay

Agatala, the capital city has the nearest airport and is about 178 Km away. Another airport, Kailashahar is being converted into a commercial airport under the government’s Udaan project. The nearest railway station is Kumarghat. If travelling by road from Assam / Mizoram direction, then Dharmanagar , 40 Km from Unakoti, is a good place to stay for the day trip. If you are flying into Agartala, a 3 hour journey one way gets you to Unakoti. Kailashahar is another good place to stay, but the town is on the side of Unakoti which is away from the highway, so it doesn’t make sense travelling in the opposite direction to get accommodation.

Tripura’s roads have been revamped and the roads are in excellent condition throughout the state. But the state is sparsely populated, so take care of fuel and food needs inside the cities themselves, e.g. Agartala, Dharmanagar, Kailashahar or Kumarghat.

Unakoti is maintained well and has good toilet facilities. The site is open from sunrise to sunset and the best time to get there is as early as possible before the tourist crowd hits. The highway between Dharmanagar and Agartala, which covers Unakoti along the way, has rolling hills and tropical forests. So it is a pleasure to drive.


It’s not often that you see a depiction of deities in tribal form as huge bas reliefs on huge rock faces. So even though Unakoti is way too far from the most important cities of India, it is well worth the visit. Don’t miss this unique man-made wonder of ancient India.